金沙国际备用网址公司丨浅谈法律法规翻译的三个重点

发布时间:2018-08-15 来源:法律英语翻译


“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规定与罚则”是每一部法律法规必不可少的内容,掌握了这三个部分的翻译,法律法规的翻译会变的简单、容易的多。

一、先来看“开场白”。下面便是一部典型的地方法规的卷首语:

第一条 为加强市容和环境卫生管理,创造和维护整洁、优美的市容环境,保障人民身体健康,促进经济发展和社会文明进步,根据有关法律、法规,结合本市实际情况,制定本条例。(摘自天津市市容和环境卫生管理条例)

开场白一般有四个雷打不动的组成部分。即“为了”、“根据”、“结合”、“制定”。根据英语行文特点,应该先翻“制定”,These Regulations are enacted (formulated),一般formulate用的多些,从英语词义分析,enact似乎更加准确些。有学者主张把enact与formulate一起用上。准确是准确了,但是毕竟显得有点儿累赘。下面是译文:

Article 1  These Regulations are enacted in accordance with pertinent laws and regulations and in light of the concrete conditions of this Municipality, with the purpose of strengthening the administration of cityscape and environmental sanitation, creating and maintaining a clean, beautiful cityscape and environment, protecting people’s health, promoting economic growth, civilization and progress of society.

还有三处小地方需要说明一下。

1. 条例也可以用单数。

2. “条例”与“本市”大写的目的是为了醒目、突出,并与本条例中提到的另外一些条例加以区别。

3. With the purpose of 或者with the aim to 后边都应该用动词+ing的形式。

在开场白中,往往还有一些关键名词的解释,实施本法的范围以及负责单位的任命等项内容。现分别说明如下:


关键名词解释:

第三条  本条例所称的劳动和社会保障(以下简称劳动保障)监察,是指劳动保障行政部门依法对用人单位和劳动者、就业服务机构、医疗服务机构遵守劳动保障法律、法规的情况进行监督检查,对违反劳动保障法律、法规的行为依法进行处理的行政执法活动。(摘自《天津市劳动和社会保障监察条例》)

Article 3 The labour and social security (hereinafter abbreviated as labour security) supervision mentioned in this Regulation refers to the activities of the administrative department for labour security, in supervising and checking, according to law, employing units and labourers ,employment intermediary agencies, and medical facilities of their observation of the laws and regulations on labour security and, in handling, according to law, acts breaching laws and regulations on labour security.


实施本法范围:

第二条 在本市行政区域内从事建设工程的新建、扩建、改建等有关活动,以及对建设工程质量实施监督管理的,必须遵守本规定。(摘自《天津市建设工程质量管理规定》)

Article 2  These Regulations apply to the newly-built, expanded and renovated construction projects carried out in this Municipality and the quality control thereof.


负责单位:

第六条 天津经济技术开发区管理委员会(以下简称开发区管委会)是天津市人民政府(以下简称市人民政府)的派出机构,代表市人民政府对开发区实行统一管理。(摘自《天津经济技术开发区条例》)

Article 6 The Administrative Committee of the Tianjin Economic―Technological Development Area (hereinafter referred to as TEDAAC) is delegated by the Tianjin Municipal People’s Government (hereinafter referred to as the Municipal People’s Government), and shall exercise a uniform administration of TEDA on behalf of the Municipal People’s Government.

既然在中文法律文书行文中,开场白的上述内容是必不可少的,翻译起来,也有一些比较固定的译法,不妨一记。“所称”……“是指”,有几种常见的译法。

一是如上面的译文所示“mentioned……refers to ”,也可以翻译成“be referred……shall be”;

“必须遵守本规定”或者“适用本规定”,可以一律翻译成“apply to”,没不要把前者翻译成“must abide by”。。


二、再看一下“结束语”的翻译。结束语首先要说,本条例从何时起生效,有的时候还要说明以前制定的某某条例同时废止。请看上述有关市容条例的结束语以及译文:

第五十九条  本条例自公布之日起施行。1998年2月25目天津市第十二届人民代表大会常务委员会第四十次会议通过的《天津市环境卫生管理条例》同时废止。

Article .59  These Regulations shall become effective as from the date of promulgation. The Regulations of Tianjin Municipality on Environmental Sanitation that was adopted at the 40th Session of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth Tianjin Municipal People’s Congress on February 25, 1998 shall be abrogated simultaneously. wwww.legaltranz.com

“生效”译法不一而足。经常选用的有:take effect,come into effect,become effective 等等。 如果原文是从某日起实施,要用as of 这个词组,比如从2003年12月20日起实施,要说These Regulations shall take effect as of December 20,2003,而不要说成as from December 20,2003。“同时废止”则比较简单,译成be abrogated simultaneously 即可。

三、“规定与罚则”。

这两部分是孪生兄弟,相辅相成。一般情况下,翻译罚则只要在规定前边加一个“不”字即可。在数码时代,更是不费吹灰之力,将规定中的有关内容复制,粘贴过来,先行否定,然后再稍加整理即可。请看《天津市收购废旧金属和信托寄卖业治安管理办法》里的例子:

第三条 经营收购生产性废旧金属的单位,须经经营所在地的公安分局、县公安局审查,符合规定的,由市公安局核发特种行业许可证。

经营收购非生产性废旧金属和信托寄卖业的单位和个人,须到经营所在地的公安分局备案。

禁止无证经营。

第十一条 违反本办法第三条第一款规定, 非法收购生产性废旧金属的,予以取缔,没收非法收购的物品及违法所得;对单位或直接责任者可并处5000元以上1万元以下罚款。

违反本办法第三条第二款规定,非法收购非生产性废旧金属的,对单位或直接责任者给予警告或处500元以下罚款。

违反本办法第三条第二款规定,非法经营信托寄卖业的,予以查封,对单位或直接责任者处1万元以下罚款,有违法所得的,处3万元以下罚款。(摘自《天津市收购废旧金属和信托寄卖业治安管理办法》)

Article 3 The units that engage in purchasing the industrial waste and used metals shall apply to the public security sub-bureau or county bureau of their location of business for examination, pass the examination, and obtain the permit for special business issued by the Municipal Public Security Bureau.

Units and individuals that engage in purchasing non-industrial waste and used metals and in running secondhand businesses shall file a report for record with the public security bureau of their location of business..

It is prohibited to run, without permits, businesses in the above- mentioned fields.

Article 11 Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 1 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste and used industrial metals, the authorities concerned shall stop its business and confiscate the illegally purchased articles,and the illegally obtained profits; It may also impose a fine of not less than Renminbi 5,000 yuan but not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan on the unit or the person directly responsible. wwww.legaltranz.com

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally purchases waste or used non-industrial metals, the relevant authorities shall give the unit or the person directly responsible a warning or impose a fine of not more than Renminbi 500 yuan.

Where a unit or individual, in violation of paragraph 2 of Article 3 of these Measures, illegally runs secondhand businesses, the authorities concerned shall close the shop and impose on the unit or the individual directly responsible a fine of not more than Renminbi 10,000 yuan; In case there is illegally obtained profit, the fine shall be not more than Renminbi 30,000 yuan。

当然,规定与罚则的写法有各种不同的安排。有前后分列的,如上例,有的甚至还专门列出一章,谓之曰“奖励与处罚”或“法律责任”;也有的则把规定与罚则写在同一条款当中,这样,倒也显得更加紧凑一些。下面是一个规定与罚则并列的例子。选自《天津市市容和环境卫生管理条例》。

第三十一条  禁止下列影响环境卫生清洁的行为:

〈一〉随地吐痰、吐口香糖、便溺,乱倒粪便;

〈二〉乱扔烟蒂、纸屑、瓜果皮核以及各类包装废弃物等;

〈三〉乱倒、乱堆渣土、污泥或者其他废弃物,向道路、河道、公共场地上抛撒杂物、废弃物,由建筑物或者车辆向外抛掷杂物、废弃物。

违反前款第〈一〉项规定的,责令即时清除,并处五十元以上一百元以下罚款;违反第〈二〉项规定的,责令即时清除,并处十元以上五十元以下罚款;违反第(三〉项规定的,责令限期清除,逾期不清除的,处五十元以上五百元以下罚款,其中单位违反此项规定的,处五百元以上五千元以下罚款。

Article 31 The following acts that affect environmental sanitation are prohibited:

(1) Spitting, throwing chewing gums, urinating and moving bowels at inappropriate places or dumping human wastes,


(2) Littering, throwing cigarette butts, the core and shell of fruits and melons, and all kinds of packages;


(3) Dumping or piling construction waste, dirt or other waste, dumping odds and bits, throwaways or throwing odds and bits or waste from buildings or vehicles;

Anyone that violates paragraph (1) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi 100 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (2) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter immediately and shall be imposed a fine of not less than Renminbi 10 yuan but not more than Renminbi 50 yuan; Anyone that violates paragraph (3) of the preceding article shall be ordered to clean the litter within a definite time limit; anyone that fails to do the cleaning when the period of validity expires, the department concerned shall imposed on him a fine of not less than Renminbi 50 yuan but not more than Renminbi  100 yuan. Where the violator is a unit, it shall be imposed a fine of not less than RMB 500 yuan but not more than RMB 5,000 yuan


这儿也有几点值得注意的地方需要讲一讲。

1. 罚则中“xx至xx元”,有人简单地翻译成from xx to xx,似乎显得不那么正式。我们用not less than xx —but not more than xx,文字上就比较庄重,严肃。

2. Where的用法也值得注意。表示“如果”的地方,法律文书不用if ,而一般用where 去翻译。

3.有些固定词组也值得记忆,比如:impose a fine of xx on somebody;be ordered to do;the period of validity expires;fail to do等等,这儿就不一一详细阐述了。


其实, 在翻译法律文书之前,认真读一下有关法律条文的译文,记住一些关键的表达法,在自己翻译过程中会十分有用的。

以上简要地给大家介绍了法律法规的基本框架,即“开场白”、“结束语”以及“规定与罚则”。掌握了这三部分的基本翻译方法,可以说法律文书翻译就入了门,剩下的就是“修行在个人”了。只要在此基础上,不断实践,不断积累,不断学习,就一定能使自己的翻译水平日长月进,渐臻完美。


PS:以上内容代表作者观点,本网站仅用于交流学习使用。

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